The only way to make an excessively complex velocity model suitable for application of ray-based methods, such as the Gaussian beam or Gaussian packet methods, is to smooth it.
We have smoothed the Marmousi model by choosing a coarser grid and by minimizing the second spatial derivatives of the slowness. This was done by minimizing the relevant Sobolev norm of slowness.
We show that minimizing the relevant Sobolev norm of slowness is a suitable technique for preparing the optimum models for asymptotic ray theory methods. However, the price we pay for a model suitable for ray tracing is an increase of the difference between the smoothed and original model. Similarly, the estimated error in the travel time also increases due to the difference between the models. In smoothing the Marmousi model, we have found the estimated error of travel times at the verge of acceptability.
Due to the low frequencies in the wavefield of the original Marmousi data set, we have found the Gaussian beams and Gaussian packets at the verge of applicability even in models sufficiently smoothed for ray tracing.
Velocity model, smoothing, asymptotic ray theory, Gaussian beams, Lyapunov exponent, Sobolev norm.
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Zacek, K.: Smoothing the Marmousi model. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 159 (2002), 1507-1526.