The seismic wave field is considerably influenced by local structures close to the source and to the receiver. This applies to sources and receivers situated close to localized inhomogeneities, to structural interfaces, to the earth's surface, etc. In this paper we concentrate our attention mainly to the ray-theoretical radiation patterns of point sources situated close to the structural interfaces and to the earth's surface. In numerical modeling of high-frequency seismic wave fields by the ray method, the interaction of the source with the earth's surface has not usually been taken into account.
The proposed procedure of the computation of the radiation patterns of point sources situated directly on structural interfaces and on the earth's surface is based on the zero-order approximation of the ray method, assuming that the length of the ray between the source and the receiver is long. The derived equations are extended to point sources located close to structural interface, to the earth's surface and to thin transition layers using the hybrid ray-reflectivity method, see Cerveny (1989). The thin layer need not be homogeneous; it may include an arbitrary inner layering (transition layers, laminas, etc.). The only requirement is for the layer to be thin. Roughly speaking, we require its thickness to be less than one quarter of the prevailing wavelength. The hybrid ray-reflectivity method describes well even certain non-ray effects (tunnelling, S* waves, etc.). Explicit analytical expressions for radiation patterns for all above listed point sources are found. These expressions have a local character and may be easily implemented into computer codes designed for the routine computation of ray amplitudes and synthetic ray seismograms in 2-D and 3-D, laterally varying isotropic layered and block structures by the ray method.
Numerical examples of radiation patterns of P and S waves of point sources situated close to the earth's surface and to a thin low-velocity surface layer are presented and discussed. The explosive point source (center of dilatation) and the vertical and horizontal single force point sources are considered. It has been ascertained that the radiation patterns of point sources depend drastically on the depth of the source below the surface even if the depths vary within one quarter of the prevailing wavelength.
Ray-theoretical radiation pattern of point sources, sources close to structural interfaces, sources close to the earth's surface, explosive sources, single force point sources, S* waves.
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